man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals

the manual pages providing help and command information for the system...
Key parts: Synopsis - shows command options and syntax, examples, option descriptions.

MAN(1)					       Manual pager utils					  MAN(1)

NAME
       man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals

SYNOPSIS
       man [-C file] [-d] [-D] [--warnings[=warnings]] [-R encoding] [-L locale] [-m system[,...]] [-M path] [-S
       list] [-e extension] [-i|-I] [--regex|--wildcard] [--names-only] [-a] [-u] [--no-subpages] [-P pager] [-r
       prompt]	[-7]  [-E  encoding]  [--no-hyphenation]  [--no-justification]	[-p  string]  [-t]  [-T[device]]
       [-H[browser]] [-X[dpi]] [-Z] [[section] page ...] ...
       man -k [apropos options] regexp ...
       man -K [-w|-W] [-S list] [-i|-I] [--regex] [section] term ...
       man -f [whatis options] page ...
       man -l [-C file] [-d] [-D] [--warnings[=warnings]] [-R encoding] [-L locale] [-P pager] [-r prompt]  [-7]
       [-E encoding] [-p string] [-t] [-T[device]] [-H[browser]] [-X[dpi]] [-Z] file ...
       man -w|-W [-C file] [-d] [-D] page ...
       man -c [-C file] [-d] [-D] page ...
       man [-hV]

DESCRIPTION
       man  is	the  system's  manual  pager. Each page argument given to man is normally the name of a program,
       utility or function.  The manual page associated with each of these arguments  is  then	found  and  dis‐
       played.	A section, if provided, will direct man to look only in that section of the manual.  The default
       action is to search in all of the available sections, following a pre-defined order and to show only  the
       first page found, even if page exists in several sections.

       The table below shows the section numbers of the manual followed by the types of pages they contain.


       1   Executable programs or shell commands
       2   System calls (functions provided by the kernel)
       3   Library calls (functions within program libraries)
       4   Special files (usually found in /dev)
       5   File formats and conventions eg /etc/passwd
       6   Games
       7   Miscellaneous (including macro packages and conventions), e.g. man(7), groff(7)
       8   System administration commands (usually only for root)
       9   Kernel routines [Non standard]

       A manual page consists of several sections.

       Conventional  section  names  include  NAME,  SYNOPSIS, CONFIGURATION, DESCRIPTION, OPTIONS, EXIT STATUS,
       RETURN VALUE, ERRORS, ENVIRONMENT, FILES, VERSIONS, CONFORMING TO, NOTES,  BUGS,  EXAMPLE,  AUTHORS,  and
       SEE ALSO.

       The following conventions apply to the SYNOPSIS section and can be used as a guide in other sections.


       bold text	  type exactly as shown.
       italic text	  replace with appropriate argument.
       [-abc]		  any or all arguments within [ ] are optional.
       -a|-b		  options delimited by | cannot be used together.
       argument ...	  argument is repeatable.
       [expression] ...   entire expression within [ ] is repeatable.

       Exact  rendering  may vary depending on the output device.  For instance, man will usually not be able to
       render italics when running in a terminal, and will typically use underlined or coloured text instead.

       The command or function illustration is a pattern that should match all possible  invocations.	In  some
       cases  it is advisable to illustrate several exclusive invocations as is shown in the SYNOPSIS section of
       this manual page.

EXAMPLES
       man ls
	   Display the manual page for the item (program) ls.

       man -a intro
	   Display, in succession, all of the available intro manual pages contained within the manual.   It  is
	   possible to quit between successive displays or skip any of them.

       man -t alias | lpr -Pps
	   Format  the manual page referenced by `alias', usually a shell manual page, into the default troff or
	   groff format and pipe it to the printer named ps.  The default output  for  groff  is  usually  Post‐
	   Script.  man --help should advise as to which processor is bound to the -t option.

       man -l -Tdvi ./foo.1x.gz > ./foo.1x.dvi
	   This  command will decompress and format the nroff source manual page ./foo.1x.gz into a device inde‐
	   pendent (dvi) file.	The redirection is necessary as the -T flag causes output to be directed to std‐
	   out	with no pager.	The output could be viewed with a program such as xdvi or further processed into
	   PostScript using a program such as dvips.

       man -k printf
	   Search the short descriptions and manual page names for the keyword	printf	as  regular  expression.
	   Print out any matches.  Equivalent to apropos -r printf.

       man -f smail
	   Lookup  the	manual	pages  referenced  by  smail  and print out the short descriptions of any found.
	   Equivalent to whatis -r smail.

OVERVIEW
       Many options are available to man in order to give as much flexibility as possible to the user.	 Changes
       can  be	made  to  the  search path, section order, output processor, and other behaviours and operations
       detailed below.

       If set, various environment variables are interrogated to determine the operation of man.  It is possible
       to  set the `catch all' variable $MANOPT to any string in command line format with the exception that any
       spaces used as part of an option's argument must be escaped (preceded by a backslash).	man  will  parse
       $MANOPT prior to parsing its own command line.  Those options requiring an argument will be overridden by
       the same options found on the command line.  To reset all of the options set in $MANOPT, -D can be speci‐
       fied  as the initial command line option.  This will allow man to `forget' about the options specified in
       $MANOPT although they must still have been valid.

       The manual pager utilities packaged as man-db make extensive use of index database caches.  These  caches
       contain	information  such  as  where each manual page can be found on the filesystem and what its whatis
       (short one line description of the man page) contains, and allow man to run faster  than  if  it  had  to
       search  the  filesystem each time to find the appropriate manual page.  If requested using the -u option,
       man will ensure that the caches remain consistent, which can obviate the need to manually run software to
       update traditional whatis text databases.

       If man cannot find a mandb initiated index database for a particular manual page hierarchy, it will still
       search for the requested manual pages, although file globbing will be necessary	to  search  within  that
       hierarchy.   If whatis or apropos fails to find an index it will try to extract information from a tradi‐
       tional whatis database instead.

       These utilities support compressed source nroff files having, by default, the extensions of  .Z,  .z  and
       .gz.   It  is possible to deal with any compression extension, but this information must be known at com‐
       pile time.  Also, by default, any cat pages produced are compressed using  gzip.   Each	`global'  manual
       page hierarchy such as /usr/share/man or /usr/X11R6/man may have any directory as its cat page hierarchy.
       Traditionally the cat pages are stored under the same hierarchy as the man pages, but for reasons such as
       those  specified  in  the  File	Hierarchy Standard (FHS), it may be better to store them elsewhere.  For
       details on how to do this, please read manpath(5).  For details on why to do this, read the standard.

       International support is available with this package.  Native language manual pages  are  accessible  (if
       available  on your system) via use of locale functions.	To activate such support, it is necessary to set
       either $LC_MESSAGES, $LANG or another system dependent environment variable to your language locale, usu‐
       ally specified in the POSIX 1003.1 based format:

       [_[.[,]]]

       If  the	desired  page is available in your locale, it will be displayed in lieu of the standard (usually
       American English) page.

       Support for international message catalogues is also featured in this package and can be activated in the
       same  way,  again  if  available.  If you find that the manual pages and message catalogues supplied with
       this package are not available in your native language and you would like to supply them, please  contact
       the maintainer who will be coordinating such activity.

       For information regarding other features and extensions available with this manual pager, please read the
       documents supplied with the package.

DEFAULTS
       man will search for the desired manual pages within the index database caches. If the -u option is given,
       a  cache  consistency  check  is performed to ensure the databases accurately reflect the filesystem.  If
       this option is always given, it is not generally necessary to run mandb after the  caches  are  initially
       created,  unless  a  cache  becomes corrupt.  However, the cache consistency check can be slow on systems
       with many manual pages installed, so it is not performed by default, and system administrators  may  wish
       to  run	mandb  every week or so to keep the database caches fresh.  To forestall problems caused by out‐
       dated caches, man will fall back to file globbing if a cache lookup fails, just as it would if  no  cache
       was present.

       Once  a	manual	page has been located, a check is performed to find out if a relative preformatted `cat'
       file already exists and is newer than the nroff file.  If it does and is, this preformatted file is (usu‐
       ally)  decompressed  and  then  displayed, via use of a pager.  The pager can be specified in a number of
       ways, or else will fall back to a default is used (see option -P for details).  If no cat is found or  is
       older than the nroff file, the nroff is filtered through various programs and is shown immediately.

       If a cat file can be produced (a relative cat directory exists and has appropriate permissions), man will
       compress and store the cat file in the background.

       The filters are deciphered by a number of means. Firstly, the command line option -p or	the  environment
       variable  $MANROFFSEQ  is  interrogated. If -p was not used and the environment variable was not set, the
       initial line of the nroff file is parsed for a preprocessor string.   To  contain  a  valid  preprocessor
       string, the first line must resemble

       '\" 

       where string can be any combination of letters described by option -p below.

       If none of the above methods provide any filter information, a default set is used.

       A  formatting  pipeline	is formed from the filters and the primary formatter (nroff or [tg]roff with -t)
       and executed.  Alternatively, if an executable program mandb_nfmt (or mandb_tfmt with -t) exists  in  the
       man  tree  root, it is executed instead.  It gets passed the manual source file, the preprocessor string,
       and optionally the device specified with -T or -E as arguments.

OPTIONS
       Non argument options that are duplicated either on the command line, in $MANOPT, or both, are  not  harm‐
       ful.  For options that require an argument, each duplication will override the previous argument value.

   General options
       -C file, --config-file=file
	      Use this user configuration file rather than the default of ~/.manpath.

       -d, --debug
	      Print debugging information.

       -D, --default
	      This option is normally issued as the very first option and resets man's behaviour to its default.
	      Its use is to reset those options that may have been set in $MANOPT.  Any options that  follow  -D
	      will have their usual effect.

       --warnings[=warnings]
	      Enable  warnings from groff.  This may be used to perform sanity checks on the source text of man‐
	      ual pages.  warnings is a comma-separated list of warning  names;  if  it  is  not  supplied,  the
	      default is "mac".  See the “Warnings” node in info groff for a list of available warning names.

   Main modes of operation
       -f, --whatis
	      Equivalent  to  whatis.	Display  a  short  description	from  the manual page, if available. See
	      whatis(1) for details.

       -k, --apropos
	      Equivalent to apropos.  Search the short manual page descriptions for  keywords  and  display  any
	      matches.	See apropos(1) for details.

       -K, --global-apropos
	      Search  for  text  in  all manual pages.	This is a brute-force search, and is likely to take some
	      time; if you can, you should specify a section to reduce the number  of  pages  that  need  to  be
	      searched.  Search terms may be simple strings (the default), or regular expressions if the --regex
	      option is used.

       -l, --local-file
	      Activate `local' mode.  Format and display local manual files instead  of  searching  through  the
	      system's manual collection.  Each manual page argument will be interpreted as an nroff source file
	      in the correct format.  No cat file is produced.	If '-' is listed as one of the arguments,  input
	      will  be taken from stdin.  When this option is not used, and man fails to find the page required,
	      before displaying the error message, it attempts to act as if this option was supplied, using  the
	      name as a filename and looking for an exact match.

       -w, --where, --location
	      Don't  actually  display	the manual pages, but do print the location(s) of the source nroff files
	      that would be formatted.

       -W, --where-cat, --location-cat
	      Don't actually display the manual pages, but do print the location(s) of the cat files that  would
	      be displayed.  If -w and -W are both specified, print both separated by a space.

       -c, --catman
	      This option is not for general use and should only be used by the catman program.

       -R encoding, --recode=encoding
	      Instead  of formatting the manual page in the usual way, output its source converted to the speci‐
	      fied encoding.  If you already know the encoding of the source file, you can also  use  manconv(1)
	      directly.   However,  this  option allows you to convert several manual pages to a single encoding
	      without having to explicitly state the encoding of each, provided that they were already installed
	      in a structure similar to a manual page hierarchy.

   Finding manual pages
       -L locale, --locale=locale
	      man  will  normally  determine  your current locale by a call to the C function setlocale(3) which
	      interrogates various environment variables, possibly including $LC_MESSAGES and $LANG.  To  tempo‐
	      rarily  override	the determined value, use this option to supply a locale string directly to man.
	      Note that it will not take effect until the search for pages actually begins.  Output such as  the
	      help message will always be displayed in the initially determined locale.

       -m system[,...], --systems=system[,...]
	      If  this	system	has  access to other operating system's manual pages, they can be accessed using
	      this option.  To search for a manual page from NewOS's manual page collection, use the  option  -m
	      NewOS.

	      The system specified can be a combination of comma delimited operating system names.  To include a
	      search of the native operating system's manual pages, include the system name man in the	argument
	      string.  This option will override the $SYSTEM environment variable.

       -M path, --manpath=path
	      Specify  an  alternate manpath to use.  By default, man uses manpath derived code to determine the
	      path to search.  This option overrides the $MANPATH environment variable and causes option  -m  to
	      be ignored.

	      A path specified as a manpath must be the root of a manual page hierarchy structured into sections
	      as described in the man-db manual (under "The manual page system").  To view manual pages  outside
	      such hierarchies, see the -l option.

       -S list, -s list, --sections=list
	      List  is	a  colon-  or  comma-separated list of `order specific' manual sections to search.  This
	      option overrides the $MANSECT environment variable.  (The -s spelling is	for  compatibility  with
	      System V.)

       -e sub-extension, --extension=sub-extension
	      Some  systems  incorporate  large  packages  of manual pages, such as those that accompany the Tcl
	      package, into the main manual page hierarchy.  To get around the	problem  of  having  two  manual
	      pages  with  the	same name such as exit(3), the Tcl pages were usually all assigned to section l.
	      As this is unfortunate, it is now possible to put the pages in the correct section, and to  assign
	      a  specific  `extension' to them, in this case, exit(3tcl).  Under normal operation, man will dis‐
	      play exit(3) in preference to exit(3tcl).  To negotiate this situation and to avoid having to know
	      which  section  the  page  you  require resides in, it is now possible to give man a sub-extension
	      string indicating which package the page must belong to.	Using the above example,  supplying  the
	      option -e tcl to man will restrict the search to pages having an extension of *tcl.

       -i, --ignore-case
	      Ignore case when searching for manual pages.  This is the default.

       -I, --match-case
	      Search for manual pages case-sensitively.

       --regex
	      Show  all pages with any part of either their names or their descriptions matching each page argu‐
	      ment as a regular expression, as with apropos(1).  Since there is usually  no  reasonable  way  to
	      pick a "best" page when searching for a regular expression, this option implies -a.

       --wildcard
	      Show  all pages with any part of either their names or their descriptions matching each page argu‐
	      ment using shell-style wildcards, as with apropos(1) --wildcard.	The page argument must match the
	      entire  name  or description, or match on word boundaries in the description.  Since there is usu‐
	      ally no reasonable way to pick a "best" page when searching for a wildcard,  this  option  implies
	      -a.

       --names-only
	      If the --regex or --wildcard option is used, match only page names, not page descriptions, as with
	      whatis(1).  Otherwise, no effect.

       -a, --all
	      By default, man will exit after displaying the most suitable manual page	it  finds.   Using  this
	      option forces man to display all the manual pages with names that match the search criteria.

       -u, --update
	      This  option  causes  man  to perform an `inode level' consistency check on its database caches to
	      ensure that they are an accurate representation of the filesystem.  It will  only  have  a  useful
	      effect if man is installed with the setuid bit set.

       --no-subpages
	      By  default,  man  will  try  to interpret pairs of manual page names given on the command line as
	      equivalent to a single manual page name containing a hyphen or an underscore.  This  supports  the
	      common pattern of programs that implement a number of subcommands, allowing them to provide manual
	      pages for each that can be accessed using similar syntax as would be used to  invoke  the  subcom‐
	      mands themselves.  For example:

		$ man -aw git diff
		/usr/share/man/man1/git-diff.1.gz

	      To disable this behaviour, use the --no-subpages option.

		$ man -aw --no-subpages git diff
		/usr/share/man/man1/git.1.gz
		/usr/share/man/man3/Git.3pm.gz
		/usr/share/man/man1/diff.1.gz

   Controlling formatted output
       -P pager, --pager=pager
	      Specify  which  output  pager  to  use.  By default, man uses pager -s.  This option overrides the
	      $MANPAGER environment variable, which in turn overrides the $PAGER environment  variable.   It  is
	      not used in conjunction with -f or -k.

	      The  value  may  be  a  simple command name or a command with arguments, and may use shell quoting
	      (backslashes, single quotes, or double quotes).  It may not use pipes  to  connect  multiple  com‐
	      mands;  if  you  need  that, use a wrapper script, which may take the file to display either as an
	      argument or on standard input.

       -r prompt, --prompt=prompt
	      If a recent version of less is used as the pager, man will attempt to set its prompt and some sen‐
	      sible options.  The default prompt looks like

	       Manual page name(sec) line x

	      where name denotes the manual page name, sec denotes the section it was found under and x the cur‐
	      rent line number.  This is achieved by using the $LESS environment variable.

	      Supplying -r with a string will override this default.  The string may contain  the  text  $MAN_PN
	      which  will  be expanded to the name of the current manual page and its section name surrounded by
	      `(' and `)'.  The string used to produce the default could be expressed as

	      \ Manual\ page\ \$MAN_PN\ ?ltline\ %lt?L/%L.:
	      byte\ %bB?s/%s..?\ (END):?pB\ %pB\\%..
	      (press h for help or q to quit)

	      It is broken into three lines here for the sake of readability only.   For  its  meaning	see  the
	      less(1) manual page.  The prompt string is first evaluated by the shell.	All double quotes, back-
	      quotes and backslashes in the prompt must be escaped by a preceding backslash.  The prompt  string
	      may  end	in  an escaped $ which may be followed by further options for less.  By default man sets
	      the -ix8 options.

	      If you want to override man's prompt string processing completely, use  the  $MANLESS  environment
	      variable described below.

       -7, --ascii
	      When viewing a pure ascii(7) manual page on a 7 bit terminal or terminal emulator, some characters
	      may not display correctly when using the latin1(7) device description with GNU nroff.  This option
	      allows  pure  ascii  manual  pages  to  be displayed in ascii with the latin1 device.  It will not
	      translate any latin1 text.  The following table shows the translations performed: some parts of it
	      may only be displayed properly when using GNU nroff's latin1(7) device.


	      Description	    Octal   latin1   ascii
	      ─────────────────────────────────────────────
	      continuation hyphen    255      ‐        -
	      bullet (middle dot)    267      ·        o
	      acute accent	     264      ´        '
	      multiplication sign    327      ×        x

	      If  the  latin1  column  displays correctly, your terminal may be set up for latin1 characters and
	      this option is not necessary.  If the latin1 and ascii columns are identical, you are reading this
	      page  using  this  option or man did not format this page using the latin1 device description.  If
	      the latin1 column is missing or corrupt, you may need to view manual pages with this option.

	      This option is ignored when using options -t, -H, -T, or -Z and may be  useless  for  nroff  other
	      than GNU's.

       -E encoding, --encoding=encoding
	      Generate	output	for  a	character  encoding other than the default.  For backward compatibility,
	      encoding may be an nroff device such as ascii, latin1, or utf8 as well as a true character  encod‐
	      ing such as UTF-8.

       --no-hyphenation, --nh
	      Normally, nroff will automatically hyphenate text at line breaks even in words that do not contain
	      hyphens, if it is necessary to do so to lay out words on a line without excessive  spacing.   This
	      option  disables	automatic  hyphenation, so words will only be hyphenated if they already contain
	      hyphens.

	      If you are writing a manual page and simply want to prevent nroff from hyphenating a  word  at  an
	      inappropriate  point,  do  not  use  this option, but consult the nroff documentation instead; for
	      instance, you can put "\%" inside a word to indicate that it may be hyphenated at that  point,  or
	      put "\%" at the start of a word to prevent it from being hyphenated.

       --no-justification, --nj
	      Normally, nroff will automatically justify text to both margins.	This option disables full justi‐
	      fication, leaving justified only to the left margin, sometimes called "ragged-right" text.

	      If you are writing a manual page and simply want to prevent nroff from  justifying  certain  para‐
	      graphs, do not use this option, but consult the nroff documentation instead; for instance, you can
	      use the ".na", ".nf", ".fi", and ".ad" requests to temporarily disable adjusting and filling.

       -p string, --preprocessor=string
	      Specify the sequence of preprocessors to run before nroff or troff/groff.  Not  all  installations
	      will  have  a full set of preprocessors.	Some of the preprocessors and the letters used to desig‐
	      nate them are: eqn (e), grap (g), pic (p), tbl (t), vgrind (v), refer (r).  This option  overrides
	      the $MANROFFSEQ environment variable.  zsoelim is always run as the very first preprocessor.

       -t, --troff
	      Use groff -mandoc to format the manual page to stdout.  This option is not required in conjunction
	      with -H, -T, or -Z.

       -T[device], --troff-device[=device]
	      This option is used to change groff (or possibly troff's) output to be suitable for a device other
	      than  the  default.   It implies -t.  Examples (provided with Groff-1.17) include dvi, latin1, ps,
	      utf8, X75 and X100.

       -H[browser], --html[=browser]
	      This option will cause groff to produce HTML output,  and  will  display	that  output  in  a  web
	      browser.	The choice of browser is determined by the optional browser argument if one is provided,
	      by the $BROWSER environment variable, or by a compile-time  default  if  that  is  unset	(usually
	      lynx).  This option implies -t, and will only work with GNU troff.

       -X[dpi], --gxditview[=dpi]
	      This  option  displays the output of groff in a graphical window using the gxditview program.  The
	      dpi (dots per inch) may be 75, 75-12, 100, or 100-12, defaulting to 75; the  -12	variants  use  a
	      12-point	base font.  This option implies -T with the X75, X75-12, X100, or X100-12 device respec‐
	      tively.

       -Z, --ditroff
	      groff will run troff and then use an appropriate post-processor to produce output suitable for the
	      chosen  device.	If  groff -mandoc is groff, this option is passed to groff and will suppress the
	      use of a post-processor.	It implies -t.

   Getting help
       -h, --help
	      Print a help message and exit.

       -V, --version
	      Display version information.

EXIT STATUS
       0      Successful program execution.

       1      Usage, syntax or configuration file error.

       2      Operational error.

       3      A child process returned a non-zero exit status.

       16     At least one of the pages/files/keywords didn't exist or wasn't matched.

ENVIRONMENT
       MANPATH
	      If $MANPATH is set, its value is used as the path to search for manual pages.

       MANROFFOPT
	      The contents of $MANROFFOPT are added to the command line every time  man  invokes  the  formatter
	      (nroff, troff, or groff).

       MANROFFSEQ
	      If $MANROFFSEQ is set, its value is used to determine the set of preprocessors to pass each manual
	      page through.  The default preprocessor list is system dependent.

       MANSECT
	      If $MANSECT is set, its value is a colon-delimited list of sections and it is  used  to  determine
	      which manual sections to search and in what order.

       MANPAGER, PAGER
	      If  $MANPAGER or $PAGER is set ($MANPAGER is used in preference), its value is used as the name of
	      the program used to display the manual page.  By default, pager -s is used.

	      The value may be a simple command name or a command with arguments,  and	may  use  shell  quoting
	      (backslashes,  single  quotes,  or  double quotes).  It may not use pipes to connect multiple com‐
	      mands; if you need that, use a wrapper script, which may take the file to  display  either  as  an
	      argument or on standard input.

       MANLESS
	      If $MANLESS is set, man will not perform any of its usual processing to set up a prompt string for
	      the less pager.  Instead, the value of $MANLESS will be copied verbatim into $LESS.  For	example,
	      if  you  want  to  set  the  prompt  string unconditionally to “my prompt string”, set $MANLESS to
	      ‘-Psmy prompt string’.

       BROWSER
	      If $BROWSER is set, its value is a colon-delimited list of commands, each of which in turn is used
	      to  try to start a web browser for man --html.  In each command, %s is replaced by a filename con‐
	      taining the HTML output from groff, %% is replaced by  a	single	percent  sign  (%),  and  %c  is
	      replaced by a colon (:).

       SYSTEM If $SYSTEM is set, it will have the same effect as if it had been specified as the argument to the
	      -m option.

       MANOPT If $MANOPT is set, it will be parsed prior to man's command line and is expected to be in a  simi‐
	      lar  format.   As  all of the other man specific environment variables can be expressed as command
	      line options, and are thus candidates for being included in $MANOPT it is expected that they  will
	      become  obsolete.  N.B. All spaces that should be interpreted as part of an option's argument must
	      be escaped.

       MANWIDTH
	      If $MANWIDTH is set, its value is used as the line length for which manual pages should be format‐
	      ted.   If it is not set, manual pages will be formatted with a line length appropriate to the cur‐
	      rent terminal (using an ioctl(2) if available, the value of $COLUMNS, or falling back to 80  char‐
	      acters  if neither is available).  Cat pages will only be saved when the default formatting can be
	      used, that is when the terminal line length is between 66 and 80 characters.

       MAN_KEEP_FORMATTING
	      Normally, when output is not being directed to a terminal (such as to a file or a  pipe),  format‐
	      ting  characters	are  discarded to make it easier to read the result without special tools.  How‐
	      ever, if $MAN_KEEP_FORMATTING is set to any  non-empty  value,  these  formatting  characters  are
	      retained.  This may be useful for wrappers around man that can interpret formatting characters.

       MAN_KEEP_STDERR
	      Normally,  when output is being directed to a terminal (usually to a pager), any error output from
	      the command used to produce formatted versions of manual pages is discarded to  avoid  interfering
	      with  the  pager's  display.  Programs such as groff often produce relatively minor error messages
	      about typographical problems such as poor alignment, which are unsightly and  generally  confusing
	      when  displayed  along  with the manual page.  However, some users want to see them anyway, so, if
	      $MAN_KEEP_STDERR is set to any non-empty value, error output will be displayed as usual.

       LANG, LC_MESSAGES
	      Depending on system and implementation, either or both of $LANG and $LC_MESSAGES will be	interro‐
	      gated  for  the  current	message locale.  man will display its messages in that locale (if avail‐
	      able).  See setlocale(3) for precise details.

FILES
       /etc/manpath.config
	      man-db configuration file.

       /usr/share/man
	      A global manual page hierarchy.

       /usr/share/man/index.(bt|db|dir|pag)
	      A traditional global index database cache.

       /var/cache/man/index.(bt|db|dir|pag)
	      An FHS compliant global index database cache.

SEE ALSO
       apropos(1), groff(1), less(1), manpath(1), nroff(1), troff(1), whatis(1), zsoelim(1), setlocale(3),  man‐
       path(5), ascii(7), latin1(7), man(7), catman(8), mandb(8), the man-db package manual, FSSTND

HISTORY
       1990, 1991 - Originally written by John W. Eaton (jwe@che.utexas.edu).

       Dec   23   1992:   Rik	Faith	(faith@cs.unc.edu)   applied   bug  fixes  supplied  by  Willem  Kasdorp
       (wkasdo@nikhefk.nikef.nl).

       30th April 1994 - 23rd February 2000: Wilf. (G.Wilford@ee.surrey.ac.uk) has been developing and maintain‐
       ing this package with the help of a few dedicated people.

       30th  October 1996 - 30th March 2001: Fabrizio Polacco  maintained and enhanced this
       package for the Debian project, with the help of all the community.

       31st March 2001 - present day: Colin Watson  is now developing and maintaining  man-
       db.

2.6.3						   2012-09-17						  MAN(1)


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